medicine forum Guru
Joined: 30 Apr 2005
|Posted: Wed May 04, 2005 2:05 am Post subject:
Re: Fatty acids may help kids' behavior problems
This is accurate but misleading. Here's how it goes: omega 3s
counteract the direct cause of these kinds of problems. It is
arachidonic cascade mania. Do a search for these words and see the
literature for yourself. However, you can just cut out the omega 6
polyunsaturates from the diet, which are highly toxic. A tiny amount
is okay, and you will get that from eggs, butter, even coconut oil, but
do not eat any of the oils high in omega 6s - even canola, which is
touted as "monounsaturated," is way too high in omega 6s. If you buy
into the nonsense that "saturated fat is bad," even though it has
recently been shown that the particular omega 6 PUFA, called
arachidonic, is the problem, then go ahead and use the highest quality
olive oil you can find.
Here are some reports/studies from just the last few days, but you can
search for arachidonic, for example, on pubmed.com and see for
Food Fried In Vegetable Oil May Contain Toxic Compound
MINNEAPOLIS / ST. PAUL -- University of Minnesota researchers A. Saari
Csallany, a professor of food chemistry and nutritional biochemistry,
and graduate student Christine Seppanen have shown that when highly
unsaturated vegetable oils are heated at frying temperature (365 F) for
extended periods--or even for half an hour--a highly toxic compound,
HNE (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal) forms in the oil.
Previously, vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower and corn were
regarded as heart-healthy because of their high levels of linoleic
acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid. HNE is incorporated into fried food
in the same concentration as it forms in the heated oil. Also, Csallany
and her colleagues have found three toxic HNE-related compounds (known
as HHE, HOE and HDE) in heated soybean oil. They will present their
work at a poster session from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Wednesday, May 4, at the
96th annual meeting of the American Oil Chemists Society in the Salt
Lake City Convention Center.
"HNE is a well known, highly toxic compound that is easily absorbed
from the diet," said Csallany. "The toxicity arises because the
compound is highly reactive with proteins, nucleic acids--DNA and
RNA--and other biomolecules. HNE is formed from the oxidation of
linoleic acid, and reports have related it to several diseases,
including atherosclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's,
Huntington's and liver diseases."
Csallany's work underscores the risk of repeated heating, or reusing,
highly unsaturated oils for frying because HNE accumulates with each
heating cycle. In future studies, Csallany and her colleagues plan to
determine how long polyunsaturated oil must be heated at lower
temperatures in order to form HNE and its related compounds. The study
was funded by the University of Minnesota
Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(2):146-54.
Diet and biomarkers of oxidative damage in women previously treated for
Thomson CA, Giuliano AR, Shaw JW, Rock CL, Ritenbaugh CK, Hakim IA,
Hollenbach KA, Alberts DS, Pierce JP.
Abstract: This study sought to evaluate the relationship between
dietary intake of fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, arachidonic
acid, and selected dietary antioxidants and levels of oxidative damage
as measured by urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)
and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) in women previously
treated for breast cancer. Two hundred two study subjects participating
in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study were included in
this ancillary study. Dietary intakes and concentrations of urinary
8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2alpha were measured at baseline and 12 mo in the
179 women included in the analytical cohort. Study subjects
demonstrated a significant reduction in dietary total, polyunsaturated,
and saturated fat intake and a significant increase in vitamins E and C
and beta-carotene intake from baseline to 12 mo. Linear mixed-models
analysis using baseline and Year 1 data indicated that vitamin E intake
was inversely associated with both 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2alpha.
8-Iso-PGF2alpha is increased with increased body mass index (BMI) and
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, indicating an increase in
lipid peroxidation with greater BMI and higher PUFA intake. 8-OHdG was
inversely related to age but positively related to arachidonic acid,
indicating an increase in DNA damage with higher intake of arachidonic
acid (meat). The results of this nested case-controlled study provide
potential mechanisms by which a high fruit and vegetable, low-fat diet
might reduce the recurrence rate of or early-stage breast cancer.
Yahoo! Health: Heart Health News
May 1, 2005 08:40:22 PM PST
SUNDAY, May 1 (HealthDay News) -- A lower intake of arachidonic acid --
a fatty acid found in animal fats -- is related to lower systolic blood
pressure, according to a new international study.
Systolic blood pressure -- the force created when the heart contracts
and pumps blood out to the body -- is the first of the two numbers in a
blood pressure measurement.
"One standard deviation lower intake of arachidonic acid was associated
with [a systolic blood pressure reading of] 1.6 mm Hg lower on
average," the study reported. The link persisted after the researchers
adjusted for multiple other factors, such as dietary intake of other
fatty acids, cholesterol, and animal and vegetable proteins.
Arachidonic acid is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
The researchers concluded that, in a beneficial diet plan, "lower
arachidonic acid intake is one (of several) healthy dietary
modifications accounting for a blood pressure fall."
Previous research has found that dietary fats influence blood pressure,
but the latest study is one of the first to identify the effects of an
individual fatty acid.
Results of the study, which involved 4,680 men and women aged 40 to 59
years, were to be presented Saturday at the American Heart
Association's annual conference on cardiovascular disease, epidemiology
Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? An American paradox1,2
Robert H Knopp and Barbara M Retzlaff
1 From the Northwest Lipid Research Clinic, University of Washington
School of Medicine, Seattle
2 Address reprint requests to RH Knopp, Northwest Lipid Research
Clinic, University of Washington, School of Medicine, 325 9th Avenue,
Seattle, WA 98104. E-mail: rhkn...@u.washington.edu.
See corresponding article on page 1175.
It is an article of faith that saturated fat raises LDL cholesterol and
accelerates coronary artery disease, whereas unsaturated fatty acids
have the opposite effect (1, 2). One of the earliest and most
convincing studies of the better efficacy of unsaturated than of
saturated fat in reducing cholesterol and heart disease is the Finnish
Mental Hospital Study conducted in the 12 y between 1959 and 1971. In
this study, the usual high-saturated-fat institutional diet was
compared with an equally high-fat diet in which the saturated fat in
dairy products was replaced with soybean oil and soft margarine and
polyunsaturated fats were used in cooking. Each diet was provided for 6
y and then the alternate diet was provided for the next 6 y (3). After
a comparison of the effects of the 2 diets in both men and women, the
incidence of coronary artery disease was lower by 50% and 65% after the
consumption of polyunsaturated fat in the 2 hospitals.
In this issue of the Journal, Mozaffarian et al (4) report the opposite
association. They found that a higher saturated fat intake is
associated with less progression of coronary artery disease according
to quantitative angiography. How can this paradox be explained? In
food-frequency questionnaires, saturated fat intake is more precisely
estimated than is total fat. If saturated fat is more precisely
estimated, it will associate more strongly in statistical analyses with
the outcome variable, even though other variables-such as total fat
or carbohydrate-could be more relevant physiologically. We believe
that these possibilities deserve a closer look.
Unlike the diet used in the Finnish Mental Hospital Study, the diet
described by Mozaffarian et al was low in fat, averaging 25% of energy.
The study subjects were women with coronary artery disease: most were
hypertensive, many had diabetes (19-31%), their body mass index
(kg/m2) ranged from 29 to 30, and their lipid profile indicated
combined hyperlipidemia (triacylglycerol concentration: 200 mg/dL;
HDL-cholesterol concentration: 40-50 mg/dL; above-average LDL
concentration: 135-141 mg/dL); these characteristics are consistent
with the metabolic syndrome. In addition, two-thirds of these women
were taking sex hormones. The importance of each of these points is
What are the effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in comparison
with those of a higher-fat, lower-carbohydrate diet? The response
differs by the 2 main types of hyperlipidemia: simple
hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia. In our studies of
simple hypercholesterolemia in men, a fat intake <25% of energy and a
carbohydrate intake >60% of energy was associated with a sustained
increase in triacylglycerol of 40%, a decrease in HDL cholesterol of
3.5%, and no further decrease in LDL in comparison with higher fat
intakes (5). In contrast, a low-fat diet in persons with combined
hyperlipidemia caused no worsening of triacylglycerol or HDL, but
intakes of fat >40% of energy and of carbohydrate <45% of energy for 2
y were associated with a lower triacylglycerol concentration at a
stable weight (6). In the subjects of Mozaffarian et al, a greater
saturated fat intake paralleled a total fat intake, which ranged from
18% to 32% of energy in the first to fourth quartiles. Modest favorable
trends in triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were
observed with higher fat intakes.
Triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are stronger
predictors of coronary artery disease in women, whereas the
LDL-cholesterol concentration is a stronger predictor in men (7).
Because VLDL triacylglycerol secretion and removal rates in healthy
women are double those of men (, conditions impairing lipoprotein
removal would be expected to exaggerate the hyperlipidemic response in
women as compared with that in men (9). This sex difference is seen
with the development of diabetes. The increment in lipids is greater in
women than in men and is associated with a greater increment in
coronary artery disease risk in women than in men (9). Similarly, the
development of insulin resistance and obesity is associated with a
greater lipoprotein increment in women than in men (10). The
exaggerated decreases in HDL- and HDL2-cholesterol concentrations
observed with the consumption of a low-fat Step II diet in women but
not in men appear to be another facet of this effect (11).
The failure of female sex hormones to prevent coronary artery disease
has been a great disappointment (9). This effect might also be due to
an estrogen-induced increase in lipoprotein entry against a fixed or
impaired rate of lipoprotein removal, as might be expected in women
with the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.
Would saturated fat still be bad for anyone? Not necessarily. The
effect of saturated fat and cholesterol ingestion in the form of 4
eggs/d for 1 mo in obese, insulin-resistant subjects is 33% of that
seen in lean, insulin-sensitive subjects, likely because of diminished
cholesterol absorption (12). Thus, the classic effects of saturated fat
as compared with those of unsaturated fat seen in the Finnish Mental
Hospital Study are likely blunted in the subjects of Mozaffarian et al,
whereas the effects of low fat and high carbohydrate intakes on
triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations appear to be
exaggerated by the interactions of female sex, exogenous sex hormones,
and the metabolic syndrome. A major effect on cardiovascular disease
risk would be the result of hypertriglyceridemia and low
HDL-cholesterol concentrations, which are attenuated by an increase in
saturated fat intake itself or in total fat intake, for which saturated
fat is a more statistically stable surrogate (4).
In conclusion, the hypothesis-generating report of Mozaffarian et al
draws attention to the different effects of diet on lipoprotein
physiology and cardiovascular disease risk. These effects include the
paradox that a high-fat, high-saturated fat diet is associated with
diminished coronary artery disease progression in women with the
metabolic syndrome, a condition that is epidemic in the United States.
This paradox presents a challenge to differentiate the effects of
dietary fat on lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease risk in men and
women, in the different lipid disorders, and in the metabolic syndrome.
medicine forum Guru
Joined: 02 May 2005
|Posted: Tue May 03, 2005 2:05 pm Post subject:
Fatty acids may help kids' behavior problems
"Fatty acids may help kids' behavior problems", Reuters, May 2, 2005,
Dietary supplementation with omega-3 and other fatty acids appears to
reduce the educational and behavioral problems of children with a
condition termed developmental coordination disorder (DCD), UK
"In DCD children, supplementing their diet with mainly omega-3 fatty
acids led to highly significant improvements in their reading, spelling
and behavior," lead investigator Dr. Alexandra J. Richardson of the
University of Oxford told Reuters Health.
Moreover, symptoms typical of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,
"including difficulties in attention and concentration as well as
hyperactivity and impulsivity, fell markedly," Richardson continued. In
fact, the benefit of the supplements seemed to be similar to that
usually achieved by stimulant medication.
Richardson and co-investigator Dr. Paul Montgomery, also at the
University of Oxford, studied 117 children with DCD, who were between 5
and 12 years of age. The kids were randomly assigned to dietary
supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids or inactive
After three months, the placebo group crossed over to active treatment
for another three months.
The results, reported in the medical journal Pediatrics, support those
from an earlier pilot study of by Richardson, involving children with
dyslexia and attention deficit-type symptoms.
"Our research in this area as mainly focused on the omega-3 fatty acids
found in fish and seafood," Richardson explained, "because they are
absolutely essential for brain development and function, but are often
relatively lacking from modern diets in developed countries."
"It is now very important," the researcher concluded, "to see whether
the same results could be achieved with dietary interventions in other
children with behavior problems attending mainstream schools."
However, she added, "Our next research studies are essentially on hold
until we can find further money to continue with this work."
SOURCE: Pediatrics, May 2005.
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